• Jordan Pocaan Sorsogon State University, Philippines



Gender and development, Higher Education, Intercollegiate sports, LGBTQA.


This study used an explanatory sequential mixed method design to examine discrimination experienced by selected LGBTQA intercollegiate athletes from private and public higher education institutions in the Philippines. The results reveal that participants frequently encountered sexism and verbal harassment at various places and times, that the audience or fans are more likely the perpetrators, and that ignoring the abuse is the most common reaction to harassment. The study proposes an inclusive institutional sports plan to support fair gender treatment that underpins the revisiting or re-examining of institutional policies, strengthens inclusive codes of conduct, provides training on a gender-fair-environment, and recognizes several LGBTQA events and celebrations. The researcher concluded that ignoring inequality does not prevent abuse, but progressively worsen the aggression toward sexual minorities. Additionally, if athletes are freed from discrimination and stress, they will be better able to focus and improve their performance.


Download data is not yet available.


Adeyemo, K. S. (2020). Filipino university students’ attitude toward sexual minorities: Implications for international students in transition. Journal of International Students, 1(10), 203-219.

Barnes, D. M., & Meyer, I. H. (2012). Religious affiliation, internalized homophobia, and mental health in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82(4), 505-515.

Blais, M., Gervais, J., & Hébert, M. (2014). Internalized homophobia as a partial mediator between homophobic bullying and self-esteem among youths of sexual minorities in Quebec (Canada). Ciencia & Saude Coletiva, 19(3), 727-735.

Carrol H. J. (2016) The present explosion of LGBT sports. Law and Inequality, 34(2), 449-510.

Cocal, C. J. (2019). Cyberbullying practices and experiences of the Filipino college students’ social media users. Journal of Education, Management and Social Sciences, 2(1), 43-51.

Commission on Higher Education (CHED). (2015). Establishing the policies and guidelines on gender and development in the commission on higher education and higher education institutions (HEIs) (CMO No. 01, series of 2015).

Commission on Higher Education (CHED). (2017). Conference on gender equality in higher education in ASEAN.

Conmy, B., Tenenbaum, G., Eklund, R., Roehrig, A., & Filho, E. (2013). Trash talk in a competitive setting: Impact on self‐efficacy and affect. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43(5), 1002-1014.

Cunningham, G. B. (2012). Sexual orientation and gender identity in sport: Essays from activists, coaches, and scholars. Center for Sport Management Research and Education, Texas A & M University.

DeFoor, M. T., Stepleman, L. M., & Mann, P. C. (2018). Improving wellness for LGB collegiate student-athletes through sports medicine: A narrative review. Sports Medicine - Open, 4, 48.

Denison, E., Bevan, N., & Jeanes, R. (2021). Reviewing evidence of LGBTQ discrimination and exclusion in sport. Sport Management Review, 24(3), 389-409.

Denison, E., Jeanes, R., Faulkner, N., & O’Brien, K. S. (2021). The relationship between ‘coming out’ as lesbian, gay, or bisexual and experiences of homophobic behaviour in youth team sports. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 18, 765-773.

Deshpande, V. M. (2016). Gender discrimination in sports. International Journal of Physical Education, Sports and Health, 3(3), 545-547.

Drummond, M., Elliott, S., Drummond, C., Prichard, I., Lewis, L., & Bevan, N. (2021). Sport and the LGBTIQ+ community: A South Australian study. Frontier Psychology, 12, 671586.

European University Sports Association. (2018, April 10). Combining sport and higher education has positive impact on athlete performance. EUSA.

Frankowski, B. L., & American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence (2004). Sexual orientation and adolescents. Pediatrics, 113(6), 1826-1832.

Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. (2021). Social media safety index. GLAAD Media Institute.

Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network. (2013). The experiences of LGBT students in school athletics.


Gray, H., & Walden-Schertz, J. (2019). LGBTI training in the Philippines promotes inclusion and counters ignorance. The Manila Times.

Gutierrez, N. (2017, May 17). LGBTQ activists: We are tolerated but not accepted in the Philippines.

Herrick, S. S., Baum, T., & Duncan, L. R. (2021). Recommendations from LGBTQ adults for increased inclusion within physical activity: A qualitative content analysis. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 12(3), 454-465.

Human Rights Watch. (2017). “Just let us be” - Discrimination against LGBT students in the Philippines.

Humphrey, J. H., Yow, D. A., & Bowden, W. W. (2000). Stress in college athletics: Causes, consequences, coping. Haworth Half-Court Press.

Iida, P. C., & McGivern, C. T. (2019). Creating an LGBTQ+-affirming locker room: Education for prevention. Multicultural Education, 26(2), 17-22.

International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. (2012). Human rights violations on the basis of sexual orientation, gender identity, and homosexuality in the Philippines. 106th Session of the Human Rights Committee for the Fourth Periodic Review of the Philippines.

Kimmel, D. C. (2004). Homophobia. In C. Spielberger (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology (pp. 209-214). Elsevier.

Manipon, R. H. (2021, August 9). Women and LGBTQ athletes are the stars of the Philippine Olympic team. Tribune.

MaristPoll. (2017, May 3). Widespread discrimination against LGBT athletes exists, say most Americans. Marist College Institute for Public Opinion.

Mattson, R. A. (2018). LGBTQ athletes and discrimination in sport. In D. Neacsu, D. B. Holt, & M. Butler (Eds.), Sexual orientation, gender identities, and the law: A research bibliography, 2006-2016 (pp. 199-207). William S. Hein & Co.

Mishra, U. S., & Joe, W. (2021, August 2). Global gender gap report 2021: Hegemony, level-blind assessments and poor rankings of the global South. South Asia@ LSE.

Mortazavi, S. M. (2016). Elimination of the locker room closet: Analysis of current laws and professional sports leagues’ policies toward gay athletes. Journal of Civil Rights and Economic Development, 428(4), 479-511.

National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. (2007). Anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender violence in the United States in 2006. NCAVP.

National Water Resources Board. (n.d). The revised penal code, Act No. 3815.


Parrott, D. J., Peterson, J. L., & Bakeman, R. (2011). Determinants of aggression toward sexual minorities in a community sample. Psychology of Violence, 1(1), 41-52.

Pérez-Samaniego, V., Fuentes-Miguel, J., Pereira-García, S., López-Cañada, E., & Devís-Devís, J. (2019). Experiences of trans persons in physical activity and sport: A qualitative meta-synthesis. Sport Management Review, 22(4), 439-451.

Pew Research Center. (2013, June 23). A survey of LGBT Americans.

Pocaan, J. M. (2022). Exploring teaching strategies and challenges towards a holistic context-based special education teaching strategies program. The Normal Lights, 16(1), 168-196.

Rankin, S., & Weber, G. (2014) Harassment and discrimination – LGBTQ student-athletes. In G. T. Brown (Ed.), Mind, body and sport understanding and supporting student-athlete mental wellness (pp. 73-83). National Collegiate Athletic Association.

Richards, R. (2017). Sexuality and gender perspectives on sports ethics. NSIC/Clearinghouse, Australian Sports Commission.

Roper E. A. (2013). Gender relations in sport. Sense Publishers.

Santos, A. P. (2020, April 20). Volleyball: A safe space for the LGBT community to play. Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung.

Santos, K. E. S., & De Jesus, C. D.(2020) Prevalence of bullying among LGBT students in Nueva Ecija. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6066.

Takács, J. (2006). Social exclusion of young lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) people in Europe. ILGA Europe.

United Nations (2015). Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.

United Nations Development Programs. (2019). Tolerance but not inclusion: A national survey on experiences of discrimination and social attitudes towards LGBT people in Thailand.

United States Agency for International Development. (2015). USAID policy framework 2011-2015.


Ward, T. (2021). Do trans women athletes have advantages? WebMD.

Yip, J. A., Schweitzer, M. E., & Nurmohamed, S. (2018). Trash-talking: Competitive incivility motivates rivalry, performance, and unethical behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 144, 125-144.




Volume and Issues


Social Sciences and Humanities

How to Cite